Cytoskeletal stiffening in synthetic hydrogels

Although common in biology, controlled stiffening of hydrogels in vitro is difficult to achieve; the required stimuli are commonly large and/or the stiffening amplitudes small. Here, we describe the hierarchical mechanics of ultra-responsive hybrid hydrogels composed of two synthetic networks, one semi-flexible and stress-responsive, the other flexible and thermoresponsive. 

In summary, extremely responsive biomimetic hybrid networks were prepared composed of synthetic semi-flexible and responsive flexible polymers, which can become over 50 times stiffer in just a few degrees. Although the mechanism of force generation is completely different, the stiffening response is remarkably similar to what happens when myosin motor stress the F-actin network; even quantitatively similar forces are measured in the network. These stresses built up in the network linearly scale with the PIC and PNIPAM concentrations. The straightforward relation seems remarkable considering that the PIC network is highly heterogeneous, the PNIPAM even more when polymerised under the percolation threshold and considering that the PIC network shows a highly nonlinear mechanical response.

de Almeida, Paula et al. Nature Communications (2019) 10:609

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